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Some but not all can be traced to known writings of Ibn Kammuna. Recent Editions It is a common complaint in the field of Islamic philosophy, especially in its post-Avicennan phases, that we lack editions of primary texts; this complaint was ibm in the first version of this entry.

Without fully understanding the passage in question, errors may ensue; an example of this given by Langermannp. His comparative treatise on the three monotheistic religions ChristianityJudaism and Islamtitled Examination of the Three Faiths challenged the legitimacy of Islam where he reasoned that incompatibility of sharia with the principles of justice undercuts Muhammad’s claims of being a perfect man and stated that people convert to Islam from ulterior motives.

Second, it offered a way to account for great scientific acumen. In practice, threee, it had much wider application and less precise definition. The following paragraphs are an attempt to bring to the fore some salient points. Tajriba is the most usual justification for the knowledge claimed by astrologers and alchemists. One drawback of this approach is the patchwork image it impresses upon the modern student, as if Ibn Kammuna set out to prepare a quiltwork of philosophical sources rather than to take a stand on the issues.

These are discussed in the final section of this entry. Rather, it is self-knowledge: When his life was in danger, high Muslim officials saved him. Moreover, changing the title of a book in pf without any justification all agree, for example, that Ibn Kammuna himself gave no title to the work commonly referred to as the New Wisdom introduces confusion with no compensatory payoff. Other Internet Resources Ibn Kammuna resources at academia. However, it is possible for someone to have an intuition on his own; the reasoning gels in his mind without a teacher.


Hads was not just one more function to be added to the basket of terminologies used examinatioj explain psychological processes. Enhanced bibliography for this entry at PhilPaperswith links to its database.

Here, too, Judah Halevi and Maimonides are drawn upon extensively, and the author stresses that his is a new approach. This approach has reaped some important insights, for example, the combination of Avicennan and Suhrawardian statements in connection with the notion of existence.

If we also keep in mind the nascent state of scholarship on the man and the period in which he flourished, the best course of action for the present essay seems to be this. However, on close inspection, there is nothing distinctly Muslim about it.

However, there are apparently no references to him in Jewish sources. Marmura – – Dialogue 12 1: Ibn Kammuna wrote a much shorter treatise on the differences between the two main Jewish groupings, Rabbinites and Karaites English translation by Nemoy.

The variation is seen both in the quantity of percepts that are obtained intuitively as well as in the speed of intuitive act. The Light of Thy Countenance: Much of his legacy, contained in the form of commentaries, correspondence, and treatise still survives today and makes up part of the historical remnants of his time.

Finally, the present article hopes to add to his intellectual portrait the deep piety evident in his ethical treatises, which draw upon Jewish, Islamic, and non-denominational philosophic sources.

Here follow some items of knowledge that are said to derive from hads. This is the first known commentary to that work, which, though more Aristotelian than other writings of Suhrawardi, still conveys essential points of the Ishraqi philosophy.

As Ibn Kammuna writes at the beginning of the Kalimat: No topic so engaged Ibn Kammuna more than the study of the human soul, especially its proper characterization and the proofs for its survival after the death of the body. However, here as elsewhere, he takes note of the abilities of gifted people to grasp issues that remain recalcitrant to others who are not so endowed.


However, one should not make too much of this. The publication of the book caused rioting in Baghdadforcing Ibn Kammuna to flee that city in secret and was recorded by the thirteenth century historian Ibn al-Fuwati. It was this proposal that was debated and criticized by later thinkers.

Ibn Kammuna

Much of the research for this entry was carried out during tenure of a grant from the German Israel Foundation for Scientific Development. Animals other than man have a rational soul; this ties in to the question of metemsomatosis.

In developing this theme, Ibn Kammuna makes the bold claim that hads is the ultimate basis of all human knowledge.

Hence both hads and tajriba aim to function as sources for hidden knowledge within scientific systems that are based upon ultimately Aristotelian logic. Tzvi Langermann – – Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 15 2: Why I Am Not a Muslim, p.

But is this the way his writings present themselves to the reader who is innocent of academic scholarship? And, indeed, as Lukas Muehlethaler has ubn in a series of publications, Ibn Kammuna labored to shore up the demonstrations of psychological doctrines throughout.

Ibn Kammuna (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

The evidence from citations in later writers, kqmmuna generally refer to him as a Jew, would indicate so. What remains, then, is to compare the claims that are particular to each of the three faiths. Simon Bellahsen has published a French translation of the Examinationincluding a translation of portions from the biography in Pourjavady and Schmidtke